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Emerald (Panna)

Emerald (Panna)

The name emerald is derived from a Persian word, which latter appeared in Greek as smaragdoes and then as smaragdus rome's pliny the .

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Blue Sapphire (Neelam)

Blue Sapphire (Neelam)

Blue sapphire reflects the sky’s every shade, from blazing afternoon to velvety midnight. It symbolizes nobility, truth, sincerity.

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Yellow Sapphire (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire (Pukhraj)

Yellow sapphire represents the positive powers of Jupiter in Vedic astrology, widely known as Pushparagam and Pukraj.

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Ruby (Manik)

Ruby (Manik)

The name ruby comes from the Latin word ‘ruber’ which means red.In Sanskrit ruby is called “Ratnaraj” king of gems.

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Pearls (Moti)

Ruby (Manik)

The pearl was one of the first gems to be valued by men. Fresh out of the shell, a pearl could be worn and.

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Cat’s eye (Lahsuniya)

Cat’s eye

Cats eye chrysoberyl with its band of reflected light across the middle ,has always reminded observers of the .

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Engagement Stones

Engagement Stones

Wearing a ring set with a spectacular Sapphire, EYE or a Natural Pearl tells the.

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Blue Sapphire (Neelam)
Blue sapphire reflects the sky’s every shade, from blazing afternoon to velvety midnight. It symbolizes nobility, truth, sincerity and faithfulness.

In standardized color terms. blue sapphire ranges from very light to very dark violetish blue to greenish blue.The most highly valued sapphires are velvety blue to violetish blue, in medium to medium dark tones.

It’s estimated that 95% of blue sapphire are heated or lattice diffused to improve color and clarity Source (G.I.A.).
Untreated premium quality sapphires–a tiny percentage of the sapphire market– make up the most exclusive and costly market sector.

Chemical composition
Blue Sapphire is made of Aluminum Oxide, Iron and Titanium

Species       Corundum

Refractive Index       1.762-1.770 (+0.009/-0.005)

Specific gravity       4.00 (+ 0.10 /-0.05)

Melting point       2050 C (Approx)

Best source
Kashmir (India)

Other sources

Sri Lanka




United States


Heat Treatment Heating to a very high temperature for the purpose of changing its appearance.

Surface diffusion Heating at a very temperature in presence of coloring agents for allowing chemicals to penetrate in the stone.

Fracture filling Stones are filled with epoxy resin or glass OR lead glass to conceal the fractures.

Any treatment done on the stones damages its internal structure of the gemstones.

Hardness & Toughness

Hardness (resistance to scratching) 9 on the Mohs scale

Toughness (resistance to breaking and chipping) Usually excellent but large fractures can lessen the durability

Stability (Resistance to Heat and Chemicals)
Heat       Heat can cause change in color or clarity, it can also damage fracture filling

Light       Fracture filling may dry out or alter under intense light

Chemicals       Can harm the fillings in fracture filled stones

Blue Sapphire synthetics are readily available in the market.
Blue Sapphire is made from flame fusion, flux, hydrothermal, floating zone many process in the market


Care and cleaning
Ultrasonic cleaning       Usually safe, but not for fracture filled stones.

Steam cleaning       Usually safe, but not for fracture filled stones.

Warm soapy water       Safe, but strong detergents should be avoided.

Please see the Checklist on how to buy gemstones scientifically

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